Asia’s emerging economies provide a plethora of commercial prospects. Some Asian countries and currencies are also attracting more attention on the exchange market. The Chinese yuan (CNY/CNH), Hong Kong dollar (HKD), Thai baht (THB), and Singapore dollar (SGD) are the four currencies examined in this article (SGD). Twelve European nations had chosen the euro as their national currency by the time it initially circulated in 2002.
A large number of foreign exchange chances vanished in one fell swoop. Lithuania became the 19th EU member state to adopt the single currency in 2015, and more EU member states are likely to do so in the future years. Following the demise of these European currencies, currency market participants rapidly shifted their focus elsewhere. Asia’s emerging markets were quickly viewed as fertile terrain for currency trading. Our comparison of the Chinese, Hong Kong, Thai, and Singaporean currencies will help you better understand the variables that influence their exchange rates, as well as trends that are expected to have an impact on their economies.
The renminbi (RMB), the â€œonshoreâ€ yuan (CNY), and the â€œoffshoreâ€ yuan (CNY) are the three types of Chinese currency (CNH). The People’s Bank of China has chosen a controlled floating exchange rate system, which has been widely criticized in the international community due to the yuan’s perceived undervaluation. While China’s economy accounts for 10% of global commerce, the yuan accounts for less than 2% of foreign payments. China’s official currency and medium of exchange is the renminbi (RMB), while the yuan (CNY/CNH) is the currency’s unit of account.
The onshore yuan (CNY) and the offshore yuan (CNY) are different currencies (CNH). The onshore yuan (CNY) is a non-convertible currency that is used nearly exclusively in mainland China. The Hong Kong Monetary Authority (HKMA) introduced the offshore yuan (CNH) in 2010, which is a convertible form of the Chinese currency that is traded, well, offshore. One significant benefit for non-Chinese firms is the ability to pay local suppliers directly in yuan for their procurement expenses.
The interventionist stance of China’s central bank, the People’s Bank of China, is another feature of the Chinese currency. This institution maintains strong control over the yuan, opting for a controlled floating exchange rate regime. This system is more direct, or dirigiste, than most industrialized countries’ floating exchange rate regimes.
The onshore yuan’s (CNY) exchange rate is tied to a basket of currencies, the composition of which is kept secret. China’s central bank transmits a “desired” exchange rate to foreign currency market specialized operators, and generally the Forex trading brokers in Asia who operate in accordance, allowing this rate to be reached. As a result, exchange rate fluctuations are controlled in order for the yuan (CNY) to achieve a specific level. While this approach benefits Chinese exporters, in particular, the general perception of the yuan’s undervaluation is sometimes blamed for global inequalities, such as the US’s large trade imbalance with China. The offshore yuan (CNH), on the other hand, fluctuates in response to supply and private demand in the foreign exchange market.
Because of the currency board system in existence and its peg to the US dollar, the Hong Kong dollar (HKD) is seen as exceptionally stable (USD). Tensions with Beijing have drawn the attention of the foreign exchange market in recent years. The Hong Kong dollar is a very stable currency, regulated by the Hong Kong Monetary Authority’s currency board (HKMA). Since 1983, when the HKMA’s Linked Exchange Rate System (LERS) was initially created, the Hong Kong dollar has been functioning under this structure.
A currency board, unlike a central bank, does not engage directly in the foreign exchange market to mitigate the negative effects of economic shocks. It must adhere to the monetary policy of the central bank associated with the anchor currency, in this example, the Federal Reserve of the United States. It must have substantial reserves of the anchor currency, which must always equal or surpass the value of the national currency it issues.
The Hong Kong dollar moved from 14th to ninth place in the rankings of most traded currencies between 2016 and 2019, according to official statistics from the Bank for International Settlements (BIS). The continued political instability in Hong Kong, as well as increased tensions with Beijing, are most likely to blame for this significant rise in volume in such a short time.
Thailand, despite being particularly hard hit by the Asian financial crisis of the 1990s, today has a comparatively high level of economic stability in the area. The Thai baht (THB) is an illiquid currency, which means that exchanging it for other currencies is costly. The Thai baht was the ninth most commonly used currency in international payments in 2019, according to SWIFT. The Bank of Thailand, the country’s central bank, is in charge of issuing the currency. The Thai baht is considered illiquid, in keeping with its position as an “exotic currency.” This indicates that it has a low trading volume and can be rather volatile.
The Thai baht was at the center of the Global currency crisis in 1997 when the Bank of Thailand was obliged to stop pegging the Thai baht to the US dollar due to a lack of foreign exchange reserves. The widespread devaluation that followed had three primary effects:
There has been a lot of capital flight, a wave of bankruptcies in Thailand, where firms had been borrowing in US dollars and receiving payments in Thai baht until then. Last but not least, the region is experiencing a snowball effect, with significant economic implications.
Thailand’s economy has now recovered from the 1990s crisis, and the country has continued to expand, albeit growth has slowed in recent years. Between 1999 and 2005, Thailand’s GDP increased at a pace of 5% each year, according to the World Bank. Between 2005 and 2015, however, this percentage fell to 3.5 percent per year. Nonetheless, the Thai baht is gaining in popularity among currency traders because the country’s economy, which is heavily reliant on tourism and exports (the latter accounting for 66% of Thai GDP), has become one of the most stable in the area.
Singapore, which has long been regarded as the region’s most stable economy, benefits from a liquid currency, the Singapore dollar (SGD). Singapore’s economic success and the Singapore dollar’s exchange rate are largely reliant on foreign direct investment and oil prices.
Singapore has a very young national currency, the Singapore dollar, as an international financial center with an appealing tax structure (SGD). The Singapore dollar is a very liquid currency. It was the 14th most traded currency on the currency market in 2019, as per the Bank for International Settlements (BIS).
Singapore’s economy is advanced, with a heavy reliance on high-tech exports like chemicals and electronics. The country’s strategic location between the Indian and Pacific seas, as well as its vast port activities, making it a center for the oil refining sector and other industries. An advantageous tax policy, as well as a highly specialized tertiary sector, notably in banking and wealth management services, encourage foreign direct investment, which is a cornerstone of the local economy.
The foreign exchange market has been exhibiting growing interest in rising Asian economies and currencies for a number of years, particularly since the removal of several European currencies with the advent of the single currency in 2002. The Chinese yuan (CNY), Hong Kong dollar (HKD), Thai baht (THB), and Singapore dollar are all examples of this (SGD).
Finally, to sum up, these four nations have seen consistent development for several years and provide significant potential for foreign firms. Trading in developing and major currencies, however, comes with its own set of risks. Businesses having international operations should investigate international prospects while also considering the advantages of utilizing foreign exchange hedging.